The European Parliament Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, is a standard establishing a common framework for water policy in Europe. Its aim is to ensure the protection of water and promote its sustainable use to ensure the long-term availability of this natural resource. The WFD takes water from being a simple resource to being considered in the European Union as the key to the conservation of living systems associated with it. It represented a milestone in the management of water resources and related ecosystems in Europe and was a reference for most developed countries. Continue reading
Within the construction sector, a wide variety of containment and stabilisation systems for slopes and hillsides have been used over time to address the problems of landslides and collapses of large land masses.
In general, one can consider the stabilisation systems acting on a mass of unstable terrain that would otherwise cause deep landslides, and other containment systems applicable to minor slopes of less unstable ground. The stabilisation systems on hillsides or slopes usually consist of several types combined together. Continue reading
Turbidity is an optical property that broadly describes the clarity or cloudiness of water. It is related to colour, but has more to do with the loss of transparency due to the effect of suspended particles and colloidal material.
Turbidity impacts on aquatic ecosystems by dispersing sunlight and reducing the oxygen concentration. It also affects photosynthesis as well as the respiration and reproduction of fish. Suspended particles also contribute to the adhesion of many heavy metals and other toxic compounds. Turbidity is considered a measure of water quality: the more turbid the water, the lower its quality. Continue reading
An essential step in the decontamination of water is clarification, which is the physical-chemical process aimed at removing the particles (suspended solids) that cloud water by precipitating them in the form of sludge.
Flocculation is the chemical process of adding substances, known as flocculants, to cause the colloidal substances in the water to stick together, thus facilitating their subsequent filtration and removal. The flocculation process is preceded by coagulation, so we often speak of coagulation-flocculation processes. Continue reading