The European Parliament Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, is a standard establishing a common framework for water policy in Europe. Its aim is to ensure the protection of water and promote its sustainable use to ensure the long-term availability of this natural resource. The WFD takes water from being a simple resource to being considered in the European Union as the key to the conservation of living systems associated with it. It represented a milestone in the management of water resources and related ecosystems in Europe and was a reference for most developed countries. Continue reading
An important part of the economic and social development of any country is the construction sector. There are major challenges in all phases of projects, in both civil engineering and in building, to minimise the impact on people and the environment.
In the developed world, environmental issues such as the efficient use of resources and their sustainability, the protection of biodiversity, climate change and the risk of accidents have become very important in all areas, including construction. Continue reading
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are two of the most important parameters to characterise (measure the degree of pollution) of wastewater.
BOD, the biological demand for oxygen a source of water has, is the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms to break down organic substances. These are usually bacteria (aerobic or anaerobic), yeasts and plankton contained in the water. It is a measure of the degree of contamination and is expressed in mgO2/L. Continue reading