The European Parliament Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, is a standard establishing a common framework for water policy in Europe. Its aim is to ensure the protection of water and promote its sustainable use to ensure the long-term availability of this natural resource. The WFD takes water from being a simple resource to being considered in the European Union as the key to the conservation of living systems associated with it. It represented a milestone in the management of water resources and related ecosystems in Europe and was a reference for most developed countries. Continue reading
An important part of the economic and social development of any country is the construction sector. There are major challenges in all phases of projects, in both civil engineering and in building, to minimise the impact on people and the environment.
In the developed world, environmental issues such as the efficient use of resources and their sustainability, the protection of biodiversity, climate change and the risk of accidents have become very important in all areas, including construction. Continue reading
Turbidity is an optical property that broadly describes the clarity or cloudiness of water. It is related to colour, but has more to do with the loss of transparency due to the effect of suspended particles and colloidal material.
Turbidity impacts on aquatic ecosystems by dispersing sunlight and reducing the oxygen concentration. It also affects photosynthesis as well as the respiration and reproduction of fish. Suspended particles also contribute to the adhesion of many heavy metals and other toxic compounds. Turbidity is considered a measure of water quality: the more turbid the water, the lower its quality. Continue reading